Tuesday, December 31, 2019
A01 In this piece of coursework I will select two demographic factors which have influenced the planning and provision of services. I will use written expression which uses appropriate specialist vocabulary to comprehensively describe how relevant demographic trends are used to assess local needs and inform the planning and provision of services. I will then produce a comprehensive description of the planning of services and finally give a comprehensive explanation of the influence of national and local standards, targets and objectives on the planning and provision of services. Task sheet A welfare state William Beveridge proposed setting up a welfare state with social security, NHS, free education, council housing andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Health, social care and well-being strategy 2011-2014 Key Findings: Ã¢â¬ ¢ A rise in the older population, 75 yrs and over, from 9% to 13% (29,000) of the total population is estimated by 2031 for Swansea, Neath and Port Talbot. Ã¢â¬ ¢ An increase in chronic conditions such as circulatory, respiratory diseases, cancers and in the economically and care dependent populations is therefore likely. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Over one third of households in Swansea contain at least one older person with 26% of households being occupied solely by older residents Ã¢â¬â this will undoubtedly have implications for future caring and service provision requirements. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Admissions for pedestrian injuries in 70-89 year old remain higher in those from the most compared to the least deprived areas as the gap remains unchanged. 30 Ã¢â¬ ¢ The crude hip fracture admissions rate in Swansea residents over 75 years has remained largely unchanged over the last decade with women being roughly double the rate of men. Ã¢â¬ ¢ There are differing rates of hospital utilisation in Swansea in residents aged under 75, with statistically significiantly high emergency admission in 18 of SwanseaÃ¢â¬â¢s 31 areas, but with a small proportion of areas with high rates of elective admission. Health, social care and well-being strategy 2011-2014 The lifeShow MoreRelatedCode of Ethics1610 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEthics Provision 1. The nurse, in all professional relationships, practices with compassion and respect for the inherent dignity, worth, and uniqueness of every individual, unrestricted by considerations of social or economic status, personal attributes, or the nature of health problems. Provision 2. The nurseÃ¢â¬â¢s primary commitment is to the patient, whether an individual, family, group, or community. Provision 3. The nurse promotes, advocates for, and strives to protect the health, safety,Read MoreRunning Head: Accessibility Of Healthcare For Undeserved1540 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesUNDESERVED POPULATIONS 1 Accessibility of Healthcare for Undeserved Populations Name: Institution: Introduction Skewed provision of healthcare services to common populations is not a new issue in the world. in the developed world, social stratification of populations goes beyond social borders; deep into service provision in hospitals. Probably unethical, provision of inequitable services to undeserved populations has craved its way deep into the healthcare industry. According to Gresenz,Read MoreStatutory Frameworks, Code Of Practice And Guidance Regulating The Service Provision987 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn order to maintain the quality and high customer satisfaction rate in many service provisions, managing complaint is the essential part which makes no exemption in health and social care setting. There are many statutory frameworks, code of practice and guidance regulating the service provision in health and social care setting. The local Authority Social Service and National Health Service (England) Complains regulation 2009 (amendments) is the statutory regulation provide guidance on localRead MoreManaging Quality in Partnership Working with Service Users Essay1205 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGraduate Diploma in Health and Social Care Ã¢â¬â Level 5 Module G: Managing Quality in Partnership Working The learner will: 1 Understand differing perspectives of quality and partnership working in relation to health and social care services Partnership: empowerment; independence; autonomy; power; informed choice; staff and organisation groups eg statutory, voluntary, private, independent, charitable; service users Quality: audit; quality control; role of agencies eg Care Quality CommissionRead MoreNursing Profession: The patient-nurse Relationship879 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesnursing profession is one that provides care, collaborates with others, and provides education in a variety of different settings. I choose to work in the field of nursing to advance my career from an operating room technician to a medical-surgical nurse. I enjoy the sensation of helping others and assisting with the surgical fixation of a medical complication. The American Nurses Association (ANA) created the nursing code of ethics to ensure proper moral care, goals, values, and professional obligationsRead MoreHow Ana Codes Of Ethics Affect Nursing Practice1084 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof Ethics According to the American Nursing Association, Ã¢â¬Å" Nursing is the protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities, prevention of illness and injury, alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response, and advocacy in the care of individuals, families, communities, and populationsÃ¢â¬ (Association, Scope and Standards of Practice, 2010). In the case scenario, a middle aged man is admitted to the hospital because of his bleeding ulcer. He is homelessRead MoreImplementing Anti Discriminatory Practice Within Health And Social Care Settings Essay1519 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesM3 Ã¢â¬â discuss difficulties that may arise when implementing anti-discriminatory practice in health and social care settings. There are many difficulties that may arise when implementing anti-discriminatory practice in health and social care settings such as; * The development of resentment culture. This is when an individual who has been discriminated against builds a hostility towards the individuals who discriminated against them, so that when that individual has children they pass these views toRead MoreWorking Practices And Policies Affect Collaborative Working1172 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages 5. Explain how differences in working practices and policies affect collaborative working (A.C.2.3) Organisational practices and policies: Current and relevant practices There are codes of practice and ethics for each profession such as the NMC codes for Nurses and midwives and the CQC for professionals working within the health and social care setting. There are also work place policies, practice and protocols applied which have come from legislations made by the government. This will allow eachRead MoreNursing Code Of Ethics Essay1253 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesin a matter consistent with quality in nursing care and the ethical obligations of the profession (ANA, 2015). The term ethics refers to the study of philosophical ideas of right and wrong behavior (Olin, 2012). There is a total of nine provisions however, throughout this paper I will discuss provisions one through four and express how I plan to utilize these provisions as a new RN. These provisions would include, personal relationships, primary care, nurse commitment, safety, patient rights, responsibilityRead MoreRelationship Between Diverse Cultures And Values1550 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLond on and London as a whole, confirmed by the 2011 census , it has become intensely necessary to pay attention to the impact various values and cultures have on communication. Factors such as religious beliefs, age, gender, sexuality, ethics and social class largely influence how people from different cultures interact and communicate with and among each other. For instance, when a devout Muslim female (Ms. A) who dresses fully covered up and cannot be physically touched by a male as stipulated
Monday, December 23, 2019
All three texts present very different views on marriage. Ã¢â¬ËOn Chesil BeachÃ¢â¬â¢ presents a picture of a nervous young couple on the first night of their honeymoon, where although both are inexperienced, they seem to be in love. Whereas, in Ã¢â¬ËThe Merchants TaleÃ¢â¬â¢, we have an old Ã¢â¬ËhoorÃ¢â¬â¢ man, desperate for a young wife to present him with an heir. On the other hand, Ã¢â¬ËRomeo and JulietÃ¢â¬â¢ is a play about the marriage of two lovers; this view is idealised and has for centuries been perceived as the perfect view of a relationship. Ã¢â¬ËThe Merchants TaleÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ narrator is the Merchant who has been married for a little over two months. According to Stephanie A. Tolliver, critics have painted him as Ã¢â¬Ëa disillusioned man full of hatred and contemptÃ¢â¬â¢. His marriage is a disaster and therefore we are presented with a bitter view on the story of Januarie and May. The poem is a tale within a tale and we are given three perspectives in all. Chaucer, the poet, The Merchant the omniscient narrator and the protagonists Januarie, May and Damyan. The view of marriage presented in the tale is a very negative one with the wives being at fault. Many have called the tale to be anti- feminist and critics have discussed the negative presentation of May throughout the centuries. In Ã¢â¬ËOn Chesil BeachÃ¢â¬â¢ the relationship of a newlywed couple is represented through the use of the third person. Both Florence and Edward believed that the promise of marriage would bring them what they most desired, Ã¢ â¬ËTheir marriage, they
Saturday, December 14, 2019
string(60) " their performance take lot of time of content and lessons\." The background to the study There was a shocking difficult of overcrowded classes in public primary schools of Mangaung, due to an high residents as it is in central part of the province Free State. One class can be having over forty learners, and this makes the learning process to be ineffective and difficult. This difficult causes a major poor performance in the school academics as to one in such a huge number. We will write a custom essay sample on Over-crowded Classes or any similar topic only for you Order Now In such large classes, the teacher cannot concentrate on all learners in class for attention The statement of the Research problem There was a shocking problem of over-crowded classes in public primary schools of Mangaung, due to an elevated population as it is in central part of the province Free State. One class can be having over forty learners, and this makes the learning process to be ineffective and difficult. A class can have about fifty learners and effective learning become hard. This devastating problem make the performance of learners to drop, the teacher cannot concentrate on all learners in class for attention. Research questions 1. Does overpopulation in school affect learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s academic performance? 2. What are the problems both teachers and learners face in overcrowded classroom in teaching and learning process in primary schools of Mangaung district? 3. Does overpopulation affect the efficiency of teachers in the process of teaching? 4. Howdoes the size of class influence in learners behavior? 5. What are the solutions to the problems both teachers and learners face in over-crowded classrooms in a primary? 6. Is classroom management possible in overcrowded classrooms? The purpose of the study The general purpose of this study is to inspect the effect of overcrowded classrooms on the academic performance of learners in public primary schools. The purpose of the study is also to disclose the impact of classroom overpopulation on performance of learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s academically To inspect factors affecting teachers to fail classroom management The significance of the study This study is very important to supply the school management with information to recognize the challenges faced by teachers and learners in overpopulated classes. This study will make known the extent to which overpopulated has affected learners academic performance. It also tells the other issues affecting learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. In addition, this study will help the school leaders and teachers to propose procedures to reduce the effect of overcrowding in public primary schools. The result of the study will help teachers of primary schools to understand the product of over-crowding in classes, and to find out ways of how to teach the class of more number than the required. The study will provide support for additional research in education and it will be in the best sign of the learners, teachers, and government. Definition of key terms Academic Word used to describe things that related to the work done in schools, colleges and universities. Over-crowded Full accommodation or a space beyond what is usual or comfortable Classroom A building constructed for organizing students for learning Classroom management The essential part of the teaching and learning process, the methods, strategies and skills teachers use to maintain classroom environment. Delimitation of the study This study is performing in Mangaung district at Botshabelo where two primary schools will select a case study. The primary schools participating areNthabiseng Primary School and Pelong primary school who have more over-crowded classrooms. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Introduction Most of South African schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s leading difficult is overcrowded classrooms. This affects the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s performance and teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ motivation as well. There is a need to look onto how hard it is for both learners and teachers to cooperate and make it through in this tough situation.it is impossible to learn and teach when there are many learners and one teacher in class. The teachers experience every day (Davis, 2013). Teaching challenges in overcrowded classrooms Overpopulation in classrooms affect learners as much as it affects teachers, in long run this will affect the department of education as majority of learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ academic achievements will drop. Teaching in overcrowded classrooms face big challenges of having to create a productive learning environment for learners. De Corby, 2005 states that physical teaching teachers are challenged in engaging in important physical activities and because of overcrowded classrooms this is difficult for them. Most of the subject such as life orientation and sciences in terms of practical suffer a lot due to the class size, even the laboratory is not available. This is mostly experienced in South African schools. For example, the study of Guardian Africa Network found that some schools in the Eastern Cape have more than 120 packed in one classroom into one classroom and teachers are obliged to present lessons with their backs pressed up against the blackboard (Guardian Africa Network, 2013). During the practical experience I acquired from the Central University of Technology, I noticed that in Free State this problem is huge. Having to teach more than 50 learners for 30 minutes per period is not enough. Some of the problems are small space and no resources and equipment needed in some subjects. Teachers cannot practice a variety of methods, such as higher-order questioning methods and active learning methods due to lack of space. The science teachers cannot perform the practical, learners do not concentrate, and discipline is not there due to the number. In fact, teachers are effectively limited to the Ã¢â¬Ëchalk and talkÃ¢â¬â¢ instructional method (Opoku-Asare et al., 2014:128). This also give teachers challenge in terms of how to finish the curriculum, resulting in teachers being guided by the books and work schedule or weekly plan but not teaching for the learners to understand. The teachers give over less time to instruction and give learners lot of notes on the board resulting in learners not even writing those notes because of their number the teacher cannot even tell who participate and who does not. Tasks such as checking presence of learners, and managing their performance take lot of time of content and lessons. You read "Over-crowded Classes" in category "Papers" Time teachers give to individual students is affected by class size as well as the social self-motivation among students. The teachers are challenged a lot because as much as they want to help all learners, it is impossible and very sad. Class sizes are a problem in the Free State and even present problems to student teachers in conducting learners centered lesson methods. Large class size gives practicing teachers only one option of teaching style that is convenient that requires learners to be passive recipients of knowledge during lessons. This does not allow for learner teachers to interaction (Mtika, 2010). The quality of learning and teaching for them is lost and this can emotionally drain them, leaving them with doubts of continuing the teaching career. There is a lot of noise in large classes this being an outcome of an increasing number of learners in the classroom. Noisy classrooms translate to the distraction, making it more difficult for learners to learn and for teachers to teach. No concentration in class and more time wasted trying to make learners keep quit instead of teaching. There is creation of stress for teachers making it difficult for them to handle the learning needs of learners (Oliver, 2006). This creates a hurt on the bond between the teacher and the learner. Most of the time spent is at school than at home, teachers supposed to know the learners and their ability more than their biological parents do and the lack of bond leads to problems and disruptions in the classroom. This can create a negative learning environment for the teacher and learner. Behavioral problems, absenteeism and high failure rates are experiences in overcrowded classrooms (Gibbs ; Jenkins, 1992). Gibbs and Jenkins (1992) indicate that dealing with overcrowded classrooms leads to high teacher absenteeism, teacher laziness and teacher stress. The research that is presenting an international perspective has shown that teachers internationally are finding difficulty in managing overcrowded classrooms. Disciplinary problems in large classes Overcrowding increases classroom issues of discipline. More learners provide more opportunities provided for personal conflicts, tension and general disruptive behavior. Even the best teacher or the principal cannot control the overcrowded classroom effectively , teachers find themselves spending more time to manage the class that they spend the time to teach. It is easy for learners to misbehave in large classes because teachers cannot keep their eyes on one person the whole time. Most of troublesome learners comes from overcrowded classerooms, troubles such as bullying, disrespecting and violence. Teachers are involved in failure to maintain classroom management by coming to class with no lesson plan. This learners most of them have problems from outside classroom that make them to misbehave. According to Mustafa (2014) more number of learners in classroom the more misbehavior increase and classroom management become difficult. Corporal punishment is not legal in South Africa. It is not easy for teachers and principals to discipline the learners and give the penalties. Every doing is according to the laws no matter how long it will take. The permissions available to the disciplining learners are very few. Beyond talking to learners as their teacher, and short of transferring or expelling them, disciplinarians hold students out of class, contact their parents, or enforce one to five day suspensions. Official responses to misbehavior are, thus, limited in training to either a simple reproof, holding the learner in the office until the next class period, or a suspension, this is still not enough for every minute a learner spend outside is loss of education. The most easily front runnersÃ¢â¬â¢ problems for suspension are class troubles, failure to attend classes, disrespect, leaving the school during school time. The other common types of disciplinary problems found mostly in schools as mentioned by Donnelly (2000) are fights, and disbelief of the organization. McManus (1995) lists several types of misbehaviorsthat make the work of educators difficult. These include; Repeatedly asking to go to the toilet; Missing lessons, absconding; Smoking in the toilets; Pushing past the educator; learners playing with matches in class and making rude remarks to the teacher when the teacher stops them. The noisewhen the learner is supposed to be writing; this happen a lot when learners are writing formal tasks and it distract other learners who are concentrating. Other misbehavior includes : talking while the teacher is talking, failing to raise hand before talking, Being abusive to the educator; fighting in class; Chasing one another around the classroom; Packing up early, as if to leave while the teacher is busy with the lesson. This thing of taking the educatorÃ¢â¬â¢s property without the permission is bad because it is associated with stealing. The mentality of wearing private clothes and not the school uniform especially during winter seasons is one of the misbehavior that teachers and principal deal with all the time. Leaving class early; and Commenting of wanting to go home while the teacher is busy is what most of the learners always do and it really irritate the teacher and make other learners to lose focus. The absence of parents on their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s school life play a huge part in the discipline of learners, this starts as early as in primary school level. Learners are coming to school with bad attitudes towards life and school. Lot parents are not involved in the education of their children, they do not even check the books, they do not attend parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ meetings, and these cause poor results, and learners dodging school. Louw and Barnes (2003) clarify that there is no problem child, there are only problem parents, those learners who behave badly at school are not taught respect at home. Rossouw (2003) regards the failure in discipline in most schools as originating from the communities rather than from schools. What causes the parents of learners to be absent in their school life is that, they are single parents at home and having lack of parental dominance over the house. Children who are walking and playing in croups influence each other in the discipline and misbehavior. These learners increase the problems of discipline negatively These groups effects on what are the child principles, what he or she knows, and learns. The amount of this influence depends on other situations such as, age and personality of children in the group and the nature of the group its self (Harris, 1998; Hartup, 1983). There are no doubts that the peer pressure and groups affect the aupport the growth problem of youth behavior. According to Seita, Mitchell and Tobin (1996) Ã¢â¬Å"When the family and loved ones of the children are absent in their lives, someone will play their part for them and advice the childÃ¢â¬ . Methodology Research methodology The study is descriptive in nature. It is an attempt to investigate the problems faced by the teachers in overcrowded classes and suggested some measures to settle these problems. Research design The research captures the structure of case study. Case study is helping in making the results more vigorous, worth natural setting and context. Teachers are able to elaborate further in where the Ã¢â¬ËhowÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËwhyÃ¢â¬â¢ questions are discovering. For this study, the case study is to search a specific group of teachers, in two public overcrowded schools in order to explore their experience in overcrowded classrooms. The research instruments The study is developing appropriate tools for the collection and analysis of necessary data. Close ended questionnaires that are unstructured for teachers. The population and sampling Population The population of the study included two government schools. Ten teachers of different gender and age are part of the research. The sample There are ten participants in the study and two classrooms are going to be part of observation. Five teachers are from Nthabiseng Primary school and five teachers are from Pelong primary school. One classroom each school for observations. Both schools are public schools in Mangaung disctrict, Botshabelo, Free State province Sampling technique / procedure Purposive sampling Only the teachers of two overcrowded schools are participating. Between those two schools, only teachers who have overcrowded classrooms participate so that the research can gain accurateinformation for the experiences in the overcrowded classrooms. Convenience sampling is used, the teachers who are readily available to contact will participate. The technique participants from Nthabiseng Primary are easily accessible to generate data from the school Data collection procedures The research is using the unstructured questionnaire and observation as the methods of data procedure and data generation. Unstructured Questionnaire In this study, a questionnaire is a primary data tool for collecting data from the teachers. Open-ended questions for respondents because they impose no restriction and they allow foe any response to questions provided to the respondent. This type of questioner is preferred because the respondent will express themselves freely with no restrictions. The questioner generates personal opinions, beliefs, emotions and experiences Observations The observation method helps in taking the live data from the natural occurring social location. The teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ observation will take place while they teach one classroom it is important to observe these classrooms so that they could be included in in sample so that the researcher could also have first-hand experience into what happens in overcrowded classrooms of different schools, observing learner-teacher interaction and the attitudes of both learners and teachers. This is a preferred method as it allows the researcher to gain insight information into teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ experiences with overcrowded classrooms. The secondary data collections are from review of literature, a study of documents and books. Data Analysis Techniques For the purpose of this research, there is carefully and thoroughly reading, transcribing, and analysing of data. Thematic analysis will ensure the rich description of the data set. Ethical Consideration The principal will receive the written letter asking the permission to use their school for the research. Explaining the purpose of the study and asking the permission to make class observations while teachers work Approval from the Department of Basic Education informing them of the plans to use Nthabiseng primary school and Pelong primary school in this research All the participants as well as the school involved in the study privacy and secrecy will be with respect. Limitations of the Study Most of the sources are old therefore; the present study literature is limited. The sample size that is the number of teachers is also limited, reason being they must be in classes teaching not answering questioners. During data collections under observation method, the teachers do things different from when the researchers are not there. How to cite Over-crowded Classes, Papers
Friday, December 6, 2019
Question: Write an essay about the clinical practice guidelines. Answer: Introduction Analytically established statements to support medical practitioner and patients choices about proper health care for definite conditions is called clinical practice guidelines. They are planned to suggest summarized directions for providing better healthcare facilities. The most significant advantage of clinical practice guidelines is prospective to progress both the superiority and procedure of healthcare and patient's outcome. Implementation of guiding principles of doubtful rationality can lead to the use of useless intervention, wasteful usage of rare resource and maltreatment of patients. Formatting correct guidelines can be intimidating. Every effort should be made to recognize present strategies that have been thoroughly improved and approved for practice. Guidelines established by professionals or administration should not be exempted from detailed inspection as it was found that these guidelines may be of inferior quality. The Practice Guidelines Evaluation and Adaptation C ycle is a basis for sorting out and decision-making about adopting guiding principles. The objective of CPGs for the management of stroke rehabilitation is to deliver scientific information for practice and evaluation.Guideline appraisal tools are used to thoroughly evaluate and compare guidelines. Evaluation of CPG: Criteria for evaluation Evaluating CPGs for Mary Pierces recovery is very much essential. Accurate guidelines must be chosen for improving her daily living activities and mental state. An increasing figure of evidence indicates that patients recovered quickly with a disciplined, multidisciplinary attitude towards rehabilitation after a stroke (Moatti, 2014). So far, various appraisal instruments have been advanced.The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation instrumentis becoming well accepted as a valued standard for guideline evaluation. This tool measures the feature of CPGs, provides a procedural strategy for the improved development of practicing guidelines and informs about how information should be described the in guidelines (agreetrust.org, 2016). Scope and purpose of the CPG The overall idea of the guidelines and health related issues must be specifically described. The type of patient or health issue to whom this guideline will be applied is an essential purpose. The purpose of this CPG is to prevent complication during stroke for pregnant women and providing guidance in a rehabilitation setting. Another purpose is the formation of an interdisciplinary guideline evaluation group. The objective of establishing a medical group to appraise guidelines are the allocation of effort among team associates decreased the possibility for bias in the assessment procedure and amplified responsiveness of guidelines and prospects for team members to mature ownership of the resultant conclusion (Hollon et al., 2014). Choosing proper clinical practice guidelines for managing a sensitive case like Mary Pierce, a team effort is better than individual decision making. The central aim of the guideline is to provide clear description age range, clinical explanation, and como rbidity. Involvement of stakeholders When the clinical practice guideline appraisal procedure is commenced on behalf of a medical team, the resulting summary of recommendation should be directed to experts, multiple stakeholders and organizational policy developer for appraisal and review. It is also suggested even if a solitary guideline is accepted. Looking for feedback on the suggested guidelines guarantees that persons intended to practice the guidelines have a scope to analysis the manuscript and detect potential complications for application before it is finalized (Moreau et al., 2013). Based on the vastness of the adaptation method, it may also be sensible to refer the guideline to external specialists for appraisal of content rationality, transparency, and applicability. It can confirm that recommendations from prevailing guiding principles have not been occupied out of background or adapted inaptly. The total process will make sure that appropriate CPGs have been taken for the management of Mary Pierces rehabil itation (Tate, and Bushnell, 2011). Quest and rigour for development of guidelines Selecting evidence for the patient's issues and use them in the guidelines is a major responsibility. Superior clinical results are attained when stroke patients are treated in a situation that offers coordinated, multidisciplinary stroke associated guideline evaluation and amenities (Langhorne, 2011). The trained medical team, well-organized facilities and earlier implementation of clinical practice guideline interventions are essential constituents in cases like Mary Pierce. According to Alfaro-LeFevre, (2015) all guiding principles that meet the appropriate standards should be salvaged. Since the evaluation practise is grounded on the evidence described by guideline creators, all appropriate documents connected to the CPG building method should be retrieved. In some cases, the available documents can have marginal information about the development route as that information is obtainable from elsewhere. The health advantages, side effects, and hazards should be considered in formul ating the recommendations (Langhorne, 2011). Efforts should be taken to gain such additional documents.The operational team should detect acquainted guidelines previously introduced in their settings and inspect the bibliographies to find other guidelines. Clarity of the CPGs Assessment quality and clarity of the clinical practice guideline is necessary for stroke service improvement. Motivational guidelines and counselling is vital for lifestyle improvement the patient. Mary Pierce has to recover soon not only for her but also for her newborn baby. Clarified clinical guidelines can help her for effective recovery. Diverse alternatives for management of the condition should clearly present (Sockolow, 2014). As for Mary Pierce, CPGs should include details of visual examinations as she experienced visual loss in one eye. Computer aided visual restitution can be used to improve visual function. Her difficulty in walking should be given the chance of practising walk under observation. Constraint-induced movement therapy and repetitive task-specific assisted training must be included in CPGs for upper limb activity. Activities of daily living (ADL) included in CPGs should be noticeably described and important recommendations must be easily identifiable. As sta ted by Sockolow (2014), these recommendations should answer the central queries that have been covered by the guidelines and can be recognized in different ways. Applicability of the CPGs Pregnancy-related stroke recovery guideline recommends the use of validated and standardized methods in evaluating stroke patients (Party, 2012). Mary Pierces tolerance for therapy will depend on several factors including her degree of recovery of the stroke, mental status, medical stability and ADL. Her family members are an essential part of the recovery process. The family members should be well informed about her CPGs.The patient and her family should be given information and an opportunity to learn about the causes, consequences and potential complications of stroke during pregnancy; aims, progression, and prognosis of rehabilitation. Pregnancy stroke facilities should be engaged in quality upgrading activities that include systematic audit and feedback. Facilitators and barriers for the implication of the guidelines are very much essential to describe. A CPG on stroke may refer that care should be direct through stroke units and stroke services. There must be a distinct funding mechanism in the locality to support the development of effective stroke unit (agreetrust.org, 2016). Key concepts of critical appraisal for CPGs Clinical practice guideline maintains a critical role in preserving the evidence-based clinical practice inpregnancy associated stroke and rehabilitation. Clinical practice guidelines should be customary by the means of detailed evidence-based preparation. Healthcare staffs should have the proficiency and wisdom to skilfully judge the guidelines earlier of application for better care of their patients. Studies showed that guidelines for the introduction of innovative care escalates united decision making and modify its social cognitive links (Lgar Witteman, 2013). Research also propose that appropriate guidelines can construct effective communication between the health caregivers and patient. Moreover, it can fund the caregivers in facilitating self-determination of a patient like Mary Pierce to deal with her current disabilities. The simplicity of performing of the guidelines in real life clinical practice must always be a foremost consideration if a progressive operation is to take place.CPGs can lead to variation in clinical practice. At the individual level, the worth of linking clinicians and patients in the improvement process, implementation and decisions about satisfactory variation from clinical protocols is well known. It is well recognised mainly where there are quite a lot of choices for treatment with comparable values or evidence.Clinicians need to consider that the guidelines are correct if they are to use them. Examples of medical zones where first choices of clinician and patient have been fruitfully assimilated into clinical practice guidelines include stroke rehabilitation, different cancer treatment and the ICU (Van der Weijden et al., 2013). But unwanted variations must be avoided. The most common initiative to decrease undesirable variation in clinical practice is the advancement and impl ementation of CPG, clinical protocol, and data-based pathway.Implementation of guidelines needs to be sustained by training, infrastructure, evidence support, promotion, authorisation, and incentives or penalties to inspire guideline application. Initiative to raise the finest practice and diminish unwarranted variation need local, state-wide and national approaches (Jun et al., 2016). Clinical practice guideline promotes shared decision making. Shared decision making provides several benefits for patients, clinical staffs, and the healthcare organization. It increases knowledge, reduces distress about the treatment method, enhances health outcomes, declines unwanted variation in care and superior arrangement of care with patients ethics. Applicability, facilitators, barriers, and influences on application of CPGs Clinical practice guidelines for Mary Pierce's condition are taken after a detailed evaluation of every aspect. It should be acceptable for all medical experts, Mary Pierce herself and her family members. Factors regarding the implication of guidelines like individual and team attitude, perceptions, knowledge, essential resources, effective leadership and organizational culture can have both facilitating or barrier influences. Lack of evidence-based system can be the major barrier for implementation of CPGs. The chief cause identified was the time required to find appropriate guidelines and the resources necessary to implement them. Certain issues frequently deteriorate the eminence and dependability of CPGs. These include inconsistent quality of distinct logical studies, barriers in systematic reviews (SRs) upon which guidelines are constructed, failure to raise multi-disciplinary guideline development team, dearth of clarity in the advancement of methods (mainly regarding the evide nce quality and strength of the recommendation reviews), failure to set up multiple stakeholders, unmanaged conflicting guidelines and total collapse to custom rigorous approaches in clinical practice guideline development. Therefore, a readily available online database of clinical practice guidelines is regarded as a major facilitator. In addition, the guidelines must be easily comprehended by all (Jun et al., 2016 and Lgar Witteman, 2013). Conclusion Clinical practice guidelines have the perspective to improve the route of care as well as patient outcomes. However, favourable effects of clinical practice guidelines are dependent on effective implementation. Medical organisations can move towards explicit usage of evidence in practice by accepting prevailing guidelines or by adaptation of current guidelines. CPG uses present and prominent experimental evidencein critical decision-making about patients health. CPG teaches the culture of innovation in every aspect of healthcare. It supports the individual need of each patient. It also supplies chances for treatment to be more dynamic. Alert contemplation of accessible guidelines using the methods illustrated above can update medical decision making about guidelines and recommendations which are most apposite for their setting and patients. Utilization of a demanding and clear process for recognizing, evaluating, and acclimatizing guidelines is vital as practice guidelines are fundam entally manifold interventions and the conclusions prepared can have an impact on both patients and caregivers. This piece of the article describes the significance of clinical practice guidelines for pregnancy-related stroke management. A detailed description of guideline evaluation, facilitating and barrier components on the implementation of clinical practice guidelines are provided. References Alfaro-LeFevre, R., Msn, R. N. (2015).Critical Thinking, Clinical Reasoning and Clinical Judgment: A Practical Approach, Pageburst E-book on Kno. Elsevier Health Sciences. Hollon, S. D., Aren, P. A., Craske, M. G., Crawford, K. A., Kivlahan, D. R., Magnavita, J. J., ... Galper, D. I. (2014). Development of clinical practice guidelines.Annual review of clinical psychology,10, 213-241. Jun, J., Kovner, C. T., Stimpfel, A. W. (2016). Barriers and facilitators of nurses use of clinical practice guidelines: An integrative review.International Journal of Nursing Studies,60, 54-68. Langhorne, P., Bernhardt, J., Kwakkel, G. (2011). Stroke rehabilitation. The Lancet,377(9778), 1693-1702. Lgar, F., Witteman, H. O. (2013). Shared decision making: examining key elements and barriers to adoption into routine clinical practice.Health Affairs,32(2), 276-284. Moatti, Z., Gupta, M., Yadava, R., Thamban, S. (2014). A review of stroke and pregnancy: incidence, management and prevention.European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology,181, 20-27. Moreau, P., San Miguel, J., Ludwig, H., Schouten, H., Mohty, M., Dimopoulos, M. (2013). Clinical practice guidelines.Annals of oncology,1(5), 00. Party, I. S. W. (2012). National clinical guideline for stroke. Sockolow, P. S., Rogers, M., Bowles, K. H., Hand, K. E., George, J. (2014). Challenges and facilitators to nurse use of a guideline-based nursing information system: Recommendations for nurse executives.Applied Nursing Research,27(1), 25-32. Tate, J., Bushnell, C. (2011). Pregnancy and stroke risk in women.Women's health,7(3), 363-374.
Friday, November 29, 2019
Monday, November 25, 2019
How to Make Underwater Fireworks for Kids Fireworks are a beautiful and fun part of many celebrations, but not something you want kids to make themselves. However, even very young explorers can experiment with these safe underwater fireworks. What You Need WaterOilFood coloringTall clear glassAnother cup or glassFork Create Fireworks in a Glass Fill the tall glass almost to the top with room-temperature water. Warm water is ok, too.Pour a little oil into the other glass. (1-2 tablespoons)Add a couple of drops of food coloring. I used one drop of blue and one drop of red, but you can use any colors.Briefly stir the oil and food coloring mixture with a fork. You want to break up the food coloring drops into smaller drops, but not thoroughly mix the liquid.Pour the oil and coloring mixture into the tall glass.Now watch! The food coloring will slowly sink in the glass, with each droplet expanding outward as it falls, resembling fireworks falling into the water. How It Works Food coloring dissolves in water, but not in oil. When you stir the food coloring in the oil, you are breaking up the coloring droplets (though drops that come into contact with each other will merge... blue red purple). Oil is less dense than water, so the oil will float at the top of the glass. As the colored drops sink to the bottom of the oil, they mix with the water. The color diffuses outward as the heavier colored drop falls to the bottom.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Management of Computing Resources - Essay Example Computer resources within the commission includes aggregate of available software, computer hardware, supplies, documentation, trained personnel and support services that are to be protected. The report is about designing an end user training and support system that will help serve the 5000 work stations of the education commission and whether Google or social media can be utilized to lower the cost of support outlays and IS end user training. Currently the commission is utilizing Microsoft products for the various computing operations that are done on the commission. The education commission organization is in need of an effective information system that will provide the personnel as well as the management with up to date information regarding the performance of the commission including their future plans, goals and objective. The information may be processed at the central point or headquarter of the commission and dispatched to all the other 5,000 work stations in Australia. Having an effective computing management plan that is evidence based in place will ensure safe passage of information from the sender to the receiver and back. The computers at the various work stations will be joined together with an intension of allowing sharing of resources and data. The management system will be designed to capture, store, transmit, manipulate, retrieve and display the intended information in various work stations. The system will out the information in a form that can be utilized in various workstations. Increased innovation has led to the development of the internet system which has resulted to development of information systems that can be exchanged via web-based emails, extranets and intranets. The technology will allow for faster exchange of information and data between the management and the end user located in various work stations located within and outside the city. Designing an end user training and support system for the various
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
INTRODUCTION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION and CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS - Essay Example It gives a clearly structure for the enquiry and help me to stay within a defined set of limits. This methodology provides the scheme for sampling, data collection, data analysis and explanation of findings for the research. For the sake of providing the best understanding, it will be appropriate to summarize important elements of the research to make the research methodology meaningful. Silverman, (2004) states that qualitative methods are meant to provide an observation of social phenomenon from a close analysis of facts and trends with a critical review of information to provide an opinion by me This means that qualitative research methods are mainly concerned with the assessment of social events with a view of making critical conclusion . However, Marshall and Rossman (2010) identify qualitative research as a field of enquiry that cuts across disciplines and fields and examines key concepts. Which means it is theoretical and does not really seem to be related to figures. On the other hand quantitative research focuses on figures and trends to provide ideas from experimental studies (Silverman, 2004). This is different from qualitative research which is more theories and ideas. In this research, the primary approach would be more theoretical, making it more of a qualitative research. It would examine patterns and trends in peoples perception towards Art Education at the secondary school level in both Iraq and the UK. Within the findings there would be some elements of statistical analysis to provide a pattern and tone that is quantitative in nature. Sampling is an important element for the study of a representative body to acquire information about a subject that can be generalised over a wider population (Dodds, 2011). In order to understand each of the four objectives, there will be the need to study a carefully selected proportion of the population to come up with findings that would be
Monday, November 18, 2019
The Color Purple - Alice Walker - Essay Example By the end of the book, Walker imposes the idea that the only way that women can be happy is to be independent of the perceptions of men and the way in which they relate to women. The first way in which Walker presents a boundary between men and women, in which men are not regarded as friendly, is through the point of view that is used with the father. The narrator, Celie, always refers to the men as Ã¢â¬Å"heÃ¢â¬ and creates a disconnection to the men that are surrounding her in the book. This combines with the perspective toward the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s father, brothers and later toward the relationships that are held. There are several instances where the narrator creates a significant boundary between women and men, specifically which create men as not having a sweet spirit. For instance, in the opening chapter, Walker writes Ã¢â¬Å"He acts like he canÃ¢â¬â¢t stand me no more. Say IÃ¢â¬â¢m evil an always up to no good. He took my other little baby, a boy this time. But I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think he kilt it. I think he sold it to a man and his wife over MonticelloÃ¢â¬ ¦ I see him looking at my little sister. She scared. But I say IÃ¢â¬â¢ll take care of you. With God helpÃ¢â¬ (Walker, 3). This passage is significant in the point of view from Celie. The first way in which this creates a boundary is through the use of Ã¢â¬Å"heÃ¢â¬ as a reference to the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s father. Instead of creating an identity that is positive, loving or that can be defined; a boundary is created by the general statement used about the father. The perception then continues with the actions of the father and the statement that he believes his daughter is evil. This immediately creates a perception that Walker believes that men act with behavior that causes difficulties and boundaries for women. The point of view that is given by Celie continues throughout the book to create this same sense of boundary. For instance, most of the
Saturday, November 16, 2019
The emasculation of males in society Emasculation of male has been said to gain its roots as from the World War II and the Post war period (Faludi. S 1999). Traditional gender roles have been said to the most important indicator of emasculation. This is mainly based on its application in modern society as opposed to traditional society. Changes based on jobs, empowerment, independence of women, loss of rugged individual, loss of G1 Joe ethics, Metrosexuals, Hollywood among others are important factors to consider in emasculation of the male in the modern society. According to Hillary, more effort is needed to eradicate emasculation of males in the modern society. Faludi J. in her book, The Betrayal of the American Man refers to male emasculation as the male crisis. She proceeds to state that it is the cause of the great unhappiness, violence , anger and confusion in the modern man. The thesis statement of this study is changes brought about by World War II and the post war Period. These had significant impacts on traditional gender roles more so the emasculation of the male. The problem is due to persists if men failed to recognize their gender roles meaning that it is very crucial for men to realize their gender roles before it is late. This state of affairs is not to be blamed on men or any particular person but on culture and society. These are the betrayers of men (Faludi S. 1999). Faludi identifies the reason why men are not able to pick themselves up as poor upbringing. During upbringing, they are raised to inherit a world they will exercise firm control over. Unfortunateltly, that world no longer exiats and all that remains an ornamental faÃ ¿Ã ½ade of masculinity which Faludi refers to as Ã ¿Ã ½male superdominance.Ã ¿Ã ½ Discussion Emasculation refers to the deprivation of manÃ ¿Ã ½s masculinity, power and his manhood hence making him impotent of both identity and expression. Through emasculation, patriarchy has lost value in men thus demoting male dominance in the family and the society. Masculinity is associated with the male. With emasculation, the patriarchy that exists in the male is breached hence enabling the female to compete with man for existence. It is true that masculinity is a female centered realty in every society in the world. According to Faludi (1999) the laid off laboring which has caused man to lose his work mates and the many paranoid husbands insecure about their wives during the second half of the twentieth century is a clear indication of the male crisis. Masculinity crisis was evidenced in America stage whereby men discovered that women were advancing. The advancement of women has been seen as a driving force to menÃ ¿Ã ½s distress. According to faludi, men have discovered that masc ulinity and femininity are similar ornaments, that they do not essentially differ from each other as it were the case in the traditional society. Mass culture from Hollywood, Madison and pop psychology highlights the avenues of America man troubles .several American men have perceived the advancement of women as the major cause of their decline (Faludi,1999). It was argued that men in stiffed did not miss male supremacy but companionship and social relevance. It was argued that emasculation of male has empowered women therefore being in a position to snatch jobs that were formerly made for men and dominated by men. Women have become independent.they have learnt to rely on themselves and not their husbands. A good example is that of divorced women who have managed to provide for their families in the absence of men or husbands. It was argued that in modern society, women do not base male utility on finding work and appreciation but it is all about looking for oneÃ ¿Ã ½s place in the society. Faulty refers modern society as a Media world, that the media influences everything. For instance, the media has played a major role in the feminization process. Through the media, the public has advanced feminism massively resulting into what is referred to as gender war. This is because it sets men against women whereby the two genders struggle for existence. In America, men were said to have been betrayed, a situation which was not unique. According to Faludi, American men have faced emasculation but to some extent, this has been highlighted by the fact that many women are working into menÃ ¿Ã ½s miserable production jobs but they still earn low wages. Emasculation of the male also depends on personalities. Some men clearly emasculated while others still have very strong male complex. The Economic system in Stiff ed has highlighted aspect of emasculation of males through the manner in which it screws males in white working class jobs and their families in particular (Faludi, 1999). The collapse of masculinity has left males uncomfortable since their gender roles have been violated. Culture reveals that emasculation of men resulted from menÃ ¿Ã ½s brutalality, violence and irresponsibility, which was of their nature and the nature of their hormones. Susan Faludi holds that in the modern world cultural forces are disfiguring menÃ ¿Ã ½s lives and destroys their chances to live happy lives. MenÃ ¿Ã ½s attributes such as craft, social utility and loyalty are no longer honored as the traditional masculinity continues to decline or collapse. To Faludi, they have lost their loyalty and their economic power. The way we never was a myth presented by Stephanie Coontz which illustrates the way of life experienced in the modern world or society. According to this author, none of the past moments presents workable models based on how people conduct their lives today. According to this book, dichotomous gender roles were developed in the early nineteen century with an aim of creating balance between the male individualism and the female altruism. It has been argued that economic and political trends have led to deterioration of traditional life values hence advocating for emasculation of males. Male are said to be ignorant in that they believe that their reality is centered among females without adhering to the fact that female also have their own reality. Male reality is determined externally but not internally, because it has been noted that masculinity is measured based on oneÃ ¿Ã ½s wife satisfying behavior in the society. This is to mean that the male soul does not play any part in individual reality. The selfishness implicated in the disregard of reality of females has been considered as the major cause of both spiritual and emotional differences between the two types of gender. As regards emotions, females are considered to be more emotional as compared to males. In the matter concerning spiritual backgrounds, female take the forefront as they are considered to be more religious than their male counterparts. During the World War II and the period after the war, several changes occurred in society leading to the erosion of male masculinity (Clinton Hillary, 1996). Women learnt that their freedom had been barred by the patriarchy or the dominance of males in the society. Before then, love was a good indicator of the relationship between the male and female but with the onset of emasculation of male, love was replaced by economic foundation . In the absence of emasculation, women had a close attachment to their husband. Emasculation in most cases is said to germinate into what scientist call bacterium. Male are said to be have been disadvantaged by the emasculation which is said to shed off their powers hence are they unable to practice patriarchy in the society. According to the masculine logics, this breach in behavior calls for punishment or any other consequences in the society. Males are said to find it difficult to resist the use of what is referred to as physical force and that is why aggression has been considered natural to male as in their reptilian brain. When males are offended by their wives they tend to use their masculine to punis h them but according to the recent research based on masculines, it has been noted that masculine prowess is under the counter of emasculation . According to Stephanie Coontz, women tend to exercise powers above their husbands in the society, which is contrary to the traditional gender roles. They use state authorities like the police as their watchdogs and they have the powers of summoning them at a mere dial of 911. With increased emasculation of males, both the manÃ ¿Ã ½s reality and masculinity are irrepairably damaged. They will never at any given time be the same again as it was during the times of traditional society. To cover their emasculations many males have indulged themselves into drinking sprees. Alcohol has become the bandage for their masculine wounds. Emasculation is said to be worsening as the time goes on hence developing into a full-fledged kind of disease. This showed how emasculation of males had affected men and their families whereby women had rights to decide when to quit marriage. Males are said to have no alternative reality that they could rely upon as opposed to females in every society in the w orld. Emasculation of males has made them to result into alcohol taking which has made them lose consciousness of their males reality in favor of their imaginative realities. This imagination of their reality has had negative effects on their jobs meaning it interferes with their jobs to the point that they are unable to play their roles as breadwinners in the family. Many males think or consider alcohol as the best solution for their emasculation but it has negative effects to males roles since it made them lessconcerned to what is expected of them. Imagination reality and Alcohol are said to collide if and only if the males apply them both. Emasculation is said to reach what is called malignancy hence resulting to death when males lose their jobs because they believe that there is no life worth living . The process of human evolution has been said to result to a more devastating form of emasculation since it led to feminization process through destruction of patriarchy organization and the old paradigm of expression of the masculine (Fricker, 2000). In the process of human evolvion, several roles or features were made less useful in the society. Things such as suppression, war, aggression, competition and brute muscle force are no long inexistence today. Emasculation is argued to become stronger and stronger as males escape the destruction imposed by nature. As time goes on, masculinity of males is viewed to have been transforming into a situation considered by many scholars as a vanguard of femininity in the society. According to Faludi, men have discovered that masculinity and femininity similar ornaments meaning that they do not differ from each other as it were the case in the traditional society. Mass culture from Hollywood, Madison and pop psychology highlights the avenues of the American man troubles .several America men have perceived the advancement of women as the major cause of their decline. Emasculation of males was good or bad depending on the side of human evolution one stood after the completion of feminization process. The feminization process is a complex and unstoppable process in the transformation of human beings since it is beyond peopleÃ ¿Ã ½s ability. This is to mean that human transformation is a process controlled by the spirit of God in every society in the world. This is a strong ascription of the natural law school of thought. In the early form of Christianity, females are said to possess values such as obedience, commitment, innocence, ability to sufferer silently and faithfulness (Fricker, 2000). According to the transformation of human being and the impact of industrial revolution,it was argued that these values are no longer useful since females have realized their roles after the call for gender equity in the society. Feminization process has brought about rugged individualism in the world where by a man has become a master of his own fate but not the fate of others; men are now responsible to make their beds, cook and clean among others roles previously known as duties of women. Rugged individualism has been implicated through several movies and television in the United States. The Hollywood culture is a good indicator of emasculation of males. Most of the American movies present a large number of female actors as opposed to males. In these movies female characters are empowered or play a dominant role in acting meaning that they are the most dangerous and armed characters as compared to the males. Hollywood culture had portrayed men as having adopted female characteristic. Men have taken up female habits such as trimming eyebrows, slim, tight abs, attractiveness among others. On the contrary, several researches have showed that females have embraced maleÃ ¿Ã ½s characteristics and that is why they have ventured into roles that traditionally were made for males. On the issues of appearance conscious, it has been noted that with the onset of emasculation of males, many men have become more conscious of their appearance than it was before. Some sent a lot of times decorating their bodies through the use of cosmetics and other chemicals or substances that are said to bring about beauty in human beings. Traditionally men had a little concern on the issue of beauty but this seems to have ceased with passage of time (Lewis, 1975). Younger men are the major victims of appearance conscious since they are said to adhere to fashion trends more often than in past .Emasculation of males have made women to become independent of them meaning that women are able to provide for themselves without depending on their husband who have become ignorant of their role as providers. It has therefore been discovered that many women or females are not willing to get married to men since they can take on the role of provider with ease than it was before. This is so because females are taking on the roles or jobs of males in the modern society a fact that has contributed male emasculation. Professional fields are flooded since career equity has empowered female to compete males dominated jobs. In the past, that is before the world war two, females were not entitled to venture into certain fields such as drivers, engineers, doctors among others because nature prohibits them . The world war empowered women or females to take part in economic activities in every nation in the world. This is to mean that females have the right to remain in the task force like any other human being. Traditional gender roles are no longer considered important in the modern society that came about because of the industrial revolution. This industrial revolution is said to have enlightened females thus ceasing from being victims of male exploitation in the society. It was witnessed that emasculation of male has empowered women therefore being in a position to snatch jobs that were made for men. Women have become independent meaning that they rely on themselves but not their husbands. They are no longer silent sufferer and that is why they have become increasingly independent than in the past. The Solution According to Faludi, there is an opportunity for the two sexes to look above their adversarial relationship. That they can agree on a more suitable mechanism or paradigm of human progress that will enable both to excel. Solution to emasculation of males is that gender is socially determined meaning that people perceive their role depending on the acquired knowledge that brings about equity in human beings. Through the book gender-neutral socialization, people are free to make choices that at some points made them stuck in certain social positions in the modern society. This is to mean that those choices people made on their lives contribute largely to their imprisonment in their conventional gender roles (Hilary, 2004). According to Frazier, the solutions lays primarily in employment. He states that once a man has a job he behaves like a man and takes up both his sexual and social roles with adequacy. Further, man should not measure his masculinity base on the female perception of his ability to perform his duties (Scott M. 1997)
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Why invest in bonds when there are so many other options? Since 1999, the economy has been in a downward trend. The majority of people who had invested in the stock market now known as the great stock bubble or fraud bubble were given a false sense of security and they felt the market would just keep climbing. Were there signs that investors could have looked for to predict the economic downturn? If investors had looked for the signs, maybe they could have changed their direction of investment. This paper will investigate the characteristics of bonds and see if the bond market has proven to be a safe haven for those who were wise enough to invest in it. When the economy is in a downward trend why should more people invest in bonds? A good investment is a timely investment in which people change direction of their portfolio at the beginning of economic swings. The economists monitor timely reports and determine the direction of the economy by tracking ten economic indicators through a select group of economic categories: employment, consumer spending, industrial production and inflation (Updegrave, Ten Indicators). Key items of the Employment Situation Summary focus in on unemployment rate, number of new jobs and help-wanted index. An increase in the number of new jobs and help wanted advertisements suggest a growing or stable economy. Unemployment rate tells the economists where the economy has been, whereas the number of new jobs predicts where the economy is going (Updegrave, p. 2). One important factor in the unemployment rate is that it tells the analyst that the economy has already changed. For example, an increase in the number of unemployed indicates that employers will not meet earnings or expect reduced earnin... ...Strategies. Third Edition. Prentice Hall, NJ, 1996. Noddings, Thomas. The InvestorÃ¢â¬â¢s Guide to Convertible Bonds. Dow Jones Irwin, Illinois, 1982. Bibliography Belkaoui, Ahmed. Industrial Bonds and the Rating Process. Quorum Books, Westport, Connecticut, 1983. Fabozzi, Frank. Bond Markets, Analysis and Strategies. Third Edition. Prentice Hall, NJ, 1996. Noddings, Thomas. The InvestorÃ¢â¬â¢s Guide to Convertible Bonds. Dow Jones Irwin, Illinois, 1982. Updegrave, Walter. Ã¢â¬Å"The Economy: Ten Indicators.Ã¢â¬ CNN Money November 22, 2002 Veale, Stuart R. Bond Yield Analysis: A Guide to Predicting Bond Returns. Prentice Hall, New York Institute of Finance, 1988. CNBC money. Questions and Answers, November 22, 2002.
Monday, November 11, 2019
In the future I see myself studying The Natural Science Program, hopefully with a friend through my years in High School. After school I want to study into becoming a doctor, probably in another country than Sweden, hopefully France, which will be interesting. It will probably take up a lot of my free time but it will be worth it in the end. I will probably study alongside a friend, having him as my roommate which hopefully will make my studies enjoyable. Hopefully IÃ¢â¬â¢ll have a beautiful girlfriend while IÃ¢â¬â¢m studying to encourage me alongside my mother. I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t like to get married until IÃ¢â¬â¢m like 25 years old, any younger I would consider it kind of weird and I would want to enjoy the bachelor life a while before getting married On my spare time I would go out and meet some French girls and hang out with some friends. IÃ¢â¬â¢d like my life to be adventurous and fun, but that would be kind of hard to achieve due to the fact that studying to a doctor would take up a lot of my time. After I have achieved the job as a doctor or if I achieve it I will buy a nice house and a nice car that hopefully will attract girls. Ã¯ Å When or if I become a father I do not want to become the over protective type just because of the fact that I donÃ¢â¬â¢t like when my parents behave that way for me, but I will set some boundaries. But of course I also know that it is for my own best, they do it because they love me.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Buffalo Wild Wings Essays Buffalo Wild Wings Essay Buffalo Wild Wings Essay Essay Topic: Call of the Wild Wild The restaurant creates an atmosphere that includes many televisions which appeals to sports fans and families. There menu offers great variety including anything from wings, flatbeds, salads, burgers and much more. The main reason I chose Buffalo Wild Wings is because really love their wings. My favorite flavor is mild. I would love to try some of the hotter sauces, but I think the mild is hot enough. Another favorite of mine is the deep fried pickles. They are a very good appetizer. A second reason I am interested in learning more about Buffalo Wild Wings is because it is based out of Minnesota. When we were assigned this paper, I did a Google search Of Minnesota companies that are biblically traded. Had no idea Buffalo Wild Wings was based out of Minnesota. That intrigued me a little bit. The last reason that interests me is how Buffalo Wild Wings has such a good business going in Minnesota. You hear of many corporations leaving Minnesota for better tax breaks. Why is Buffalo Wild Wings staying in Minnesota? Am interested to learn more about the business side of Buffalo Wild Wings. In class, we will be comparing it with another similar company. I think a major competitor to compare Buffalo Wild Wings with could be Rooters. They offer similar food and their atmosphere is very similar as well.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Male Character Analysis in The Importance of Being Earnest An earnest person is someone who practices diligence, seriousness, and above all sincerity. That being said, it is difficult to find a male character in Oscar WildeÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ The Importance of Being Earnest who possesses these three qualities of earnestness despite the two leading male roles portray Ernest part-time in the comedic play. Take a closer look at the double life of respectable Jack Worthing and irreverent bachelor Algernon Moncrieff. Growing Up Jack Worthing The beginning of the play reveals that protagonist John Jack Worthing has a most unusual and amusing backstory. As a baby, he was accidentally abandoned in a handbag at a railway station, and a wealthy man, Thomas Cardew, discovered and adopted him as a child. Jack was named Worthing, after the seaside resort which Cardew visited. Worthing grew up to become a wealthy land-owner and investor, who was the legal guardian of CardewÃ¢â¬â¢s granddaughter, Cecily. As the central character of the play, Jack might seem serious at first glance. He is far more proper and less ridiculous than his dandified friend, Algernon Algy Moncrieff.Ã In many productions of the play, the protagonist has been portrayed in a somber, straight-faced manner. Dignified actors such as Sir John Gielgud and Colin Firth have brought Jack to life on stage and screen, adding an air of dignity and refinement to the character. But, do not let appearances fool you. Witty Scoundrel Algernon Moncrieff One of the reasons Jack seems comparatively serious is due to the frivolous and playful nature of his friend, Algernon Moncrieff. Of all the characters in The Importance of BeingÃ Earnest,Ã it is believed that Algernon is the embodiment of Oscar WildeÃ¢â¬â¢s personality. Algernon exemplifies wit, satirizes the world around him, and views his own life as artÃ¢â¬â¢s highest form. Like Jack, Algernon enjoys the pleasures of the city and high society. (He also enjoys muffins and comes off as a bit of a glutton). Unlike Jack, Algernon loves to offer urbane social commentary about class, marriage, and Victorian society. Here are a few gems of wisdom, compliments of Algernon (Oscar Wilde): According to Algernon, relationships are Ã¢â¬Å"Divorces are made in heaven.Ã¢â¬ About modern culture, he comments, Ã¢â¬Å"Oh! It is absurd to have a hard and fast rule about what one should read and what one shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t. More than half of modern culture depends on what one shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t read.Ã¢â¬ One of his thoughts regarding family and living is rather insightful: Ã¢â¬Å"Relations are simply a tedious pack of people, who havenÃ¢â¬â¢t got the remotest knowledge of how to live, nor the smallest instinct about when to die.Ã¢â¬ Unlike Algernon, Jack avoids making strong, general commentary. He finds some of Algernons sayings to be nonsense. And when Algernon says something that rings true, Jack finds it socially unacceptable to be uttered in public. Algernon, on the other hand, likes to stir up trouble. Dual Identities The theme of leading double lives is commonplace throughout The Importance of Being Earnest. Despite his faÃ §ade of high moral character, Jack has been living a lie. His friend, Algernon, it turns out has a double identity as well. JackÃ¢â¬â¢s relatives and neighbors believe him to be a moral and productive member of society. Yet, JackÃ¢â¬â¢s first line in the play explains his true motivation for escaping his country home for the excitement of the city, he says, Oh pleasure, pleasure! What else should bring one anywhere? So, despite his stuffy outward appearance, Jack is a hedonist. He is also a liar. He has invented an alter-ego, a fictional brother named Ã¢â¬Å"Ernest.Ã¢â¬ His life in the country has been so tedious that he creates a reason to abandon his dreary and dutiful persona. Jack: When one is placed in the position of guardian, one has to adopt a very high moral tone on all subjects. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s oneÃ¢â¬â¢s duty to do so. And as a high moral tone can hardly be said to conduce very much to either oneÃ¢â¬â¢s health or oneÃ¢â¬â¢s happiness, in order to get up to town I have always pretended to have a younger brother of the name of Ernest, who lives in the Albany, and gets into the most dreadful scrapes. Algernon has also been leading a double life. He has created a friend named Ã¢â¬Å"Bunbury.Ã¢â¬ Whenever Algernon wants to avoid a boring dinner party, he says that Bunbury has fallen ill. Then Algernon cavorts off to the countryside, seeking amusement. During act two of the play, Algernon intensifies JackÃ¢â¬â¢s conflict by posing as JackÃ¢â¬â¢s delinquent brother Ernest. The Loves of Their Lives Algernon and Jack get entangled in their dual identities and the pursuit of their true loves. For both men, the Importance of Being Ernest is the only way to make it work with their hearts true desires. Jacks Love for Gwendolen Fairfax Despite his deceptive nature, Jack is sincerely in love with Gwendolen Fairfax, the daughter of the aristocratic Lady Bracknell. Because of his desire to marry Gwendolen, Jack is anxious to Ã¢â¬Å"kill offÃ¢â¬ his alter-ego Ernest. The problem is that Gwendolen thinks that JackÃ¢â¬â¢s name is Ernest. Ever since she was a child, Gwendolen has been infatuated with the name. Jack decides not to confess the truth of his name until Gwendolen gets it out of him in act two: Jack: It is very painful for me to be forced to speak the truth. It is the first time in my life that I have ever been reduced to such a painful position, and I am really quite inexperienced in doing anything of the kind. However, I will tell you quite frankly that I have no brother Ernest. I have no brother at all. Fortunately for Jack, Gwendolen is a forgiving woman. Jack explains that he arranged a christening, a religious ceremony in which he will officially change his name to Ernest once and for all. The gesture touches GwendolenÃ¢â¬â¢s heart, reuniting the couple. Algernon Falls for Cecily During their first encounter, Algernon falls in love with Cecily, JackÃ¢â¬â¢s pretty eighteen-year-old ward. Of course, Cecily does not know AlgernonÃ¢â¬â¢s true identity at first. And like Jack, Algernon is willing to sacrifice his namesake in order to win his loveÃ¢â¬â¢s hand in marriage. (Like Gwendolen, Cecily is enchanted by the name Ã¢â¬Å"ErnestÃ¢â¬ ). Both men go to great lengths in order to make their lies become the truth. And that is the heart of the humor behind The Importance of Being Earnest.
Monday, November 4, 2019
Crito - Personal Statement Example His association with then Athenian regime landed him in prison (Melchert 103). Even after being locked behind bars, Socrates held on to his philosophic principles of life. Socrates was unwilling to abandon his quest for truth even after being advised so by his trial jury. He believed in his wisdom and the power of reasoning rather than illusion reality. His firm devotion to his convictions and beliefs is illustrated well in the Crito incident. Socrates was known to display a calm spirit concerning serious issues in his life. Even after being sentenced to death, Socrates accepted the juryÃ¢â¬â¢s decision and maintained that giving up his philosophy at the expense of freedom signifies defeat. In this Crito incident, Socrates friends who had visited him in jail devised a plan of getting Socrates out of prison. However, Socrates engaged his friends through a series of rational evaluation of their plan. His friends were faced with an obligation to rescue Socrates because of the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations on them, concerning SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ sentence. As usual, Socrates subjected his friendsÃ¢â¬â¢ idea into an evaluation on whether it was in concert with any moral values. The basis of his friendsÃ¢â¬â¢ plan was the expectation of the people after Socrates had been unjustly sentenced to death. Despite this underlying reason for the plan, Socrates opted to question the planÃ¢â¬â¢s validity at the moral arena. He engaged his friends on the quest for what is truly right. Socrates always argued that in the context of decision-making, what matters most is not the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion but an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge on the subject problem (Melchert 107). He argued that the public are fond of acting randomly and usually fails to come up with rational justification of their actions. Socrates also based his argument on his belief that no one should think of doing something wrong, regardless of the state of affairs. He acknowledged the moral principle that it is not right to pay injustice with
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Business economy - Essay Example An excise tax is defined as a tax imposed on a specific amount per unit of product, and for this reason is sometimes also referred to as a specific tax (Keats & Young, 2005, p. 149). In contrast, there are ad valorem taxes such as sales taxes, which are imposed on the value or price of the product or service. Taxes imposed on Ã¢â¬Å"unhealthyÃ¢â¬ goods are also called Ã¢â¬Å"sin taxes.Ã¢â¬ They are usually state-sponsored taxes which legislators readily resort to at times when the government is seen to run a budget deficit and needs to raise funds. The taxpayers rarely protest any imposition or increase of sin taxes, for the reason that the tax is not imposed on the general public but only those who buy the product which is seen as harmful to them, anyway. Sin taxes may either be specific or ad valorem, and are generally imposed on cigarettes or tobacco, liquor, and gambling. (Investopedia, 2009) The price, income and cross-price elasticities of demand as well as the price elasticity of supply all bear on the effectivity of imposing sin taxes. Price elasticity measures changes in demand due to changes in prices of the good, income elasticity the changes in demand due to changes in the buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s income, and the cross-price elasticity of demand changes in demand for a good due to a percentage change in the price of a related good. On the other hand, the price elasticity of supply refers to the percentage change in the quantity supplied for a good given the percentage change of price for that same good. These four elasticities are important in the determination of the tax incidence, though those that bear most directly are the price elasticities of demand and supply. This is because different commodities have different responses to increase in prices, and governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s selection of which commodities to tax and how much to tax will determine government revenue. Rose (2003) observes that this was considered by Adam Smith
Thursday, October 31, 2019
How do large-scale forces shape and constrain people's intimate lives - Essay Example MutÃ¢â¬â¢a otherwise known as marriage of pleasure or temporary marriage is a pragmatic solution practiced by ShiÃ¢â¬â¢ite Muslims in Iran (Shahla). This arrangement permits an unmarried woman and an unmarried man to have intimate relationships. The contract is practical since it is usually encouraged for individuals who do not have necessitates for a binding permanent conjugal arrangement. For instance, widowed or divorced ShiÃ¢â¬â¢ites may have this convenient option when they prefer to enjoy momentary intimacies. Moreover, this is also ideal for men who do not have much financial, psychological, as well as moral means to enter permanent marriage. For example, instead of sacrificing moral standards and suffer from taboos and social stigma by engaging in premarital sex, a man can have a sanctioned relationship through temporary marriage. This kind of social viewpoint is most likely inspired by the changes brought about by industrialization, globalization, as well as economy. W ith the modernization comes the evolution of convictions and dematerialization of traditional principles. Nowadays, what is right is Ã¢â¬Å"what worksÃ¢â¬ . Globalization has also affected this change in a way that conservative norms are challenged by more liberal foreign standards. In addition, with the economic crises in various areas and intervals, temporary marriage seems to be more sensible than ceremonially lavishing on an extensive yet unsure matrimony. There is no much commemorating and luxurious rituals for it. In the face of economic pressure, temporary marriage is more logical since there are lesser expenses.... There is no much commemorating and luxurious rituals for it. In the face of economic pressure, temporary marriage is more logical since there are lesser expenses. Similarly, globalization has made it possible for Vietnams to engage in transpacific marriages. Ã¢â¬Å"Globalization rapidly opened impersonal markets of capital, goods and labor, and in conjunction with these markets, it also opened a rather personal market of emotions and marriagesÃ¢â¬ (Constable 149). This social change made it possible for locals to have a way out from the marriage squeeze crisis which is due to an extremely low male to female ration in Vietnam. By getting in touch with Vietnamese males in other countries like the US and Australia, women can have more marriage prospects. In addition, transpacific marriages is also an inviting option for many women due to economic benefits. Normally, men living in other countries have higher economic status and earn in profitable currencies. Hence, transpacific marria ges is made possible through globalization and poses advantages regarding pecuniary challenges. Another issue which is affected by large-scaled changes is masculinity. This aspect has varied interpretations. One common view is associated with aggression, independence, or vitality. Ã¢â¬Å"Penny, like Kate, relies on notion of masculinity as active, not passiveÃ¢â¬ (Elliot 52). This is more of a cliched belief that associates men with the stereotypical attribute of brute strength and assertiveness. Ã¢â¬Å"Some mothers think that sons need more independent of their mothers than daughters doÃ¢â¬ (Elliot 52). Similarly, stereotypical mind-sets consider women to be dependent
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Market Model Patterns of Change Essay 1. Describe the industry and explain the general pattern of change of the particular market model Health insurance in the United States providers represent competitive market because they are numerous, variety of choices, and no single entity has much power over prices. The health insurance can be considered as rapid growth industry. Recently, this industry is transforming in a rapid way and evolving into an oligopoly. Insurance markets in many states are eventually controlled and dominated by a few large firms. There were more than five hundred health insurers involved mergers between 1998 and 2008 (Bakhtiari, 2010). Although there are hundreds of small insurance companies operating in the market, the industry Led by WellPoint, 12 health plans cover two-thirds of the enrollment in the U.S. commercial-insurance market (Bloomberg News, 2010). An analysts report cited in the article predicts there will be 100 insurers with around 200,000 members could be forced out of business. Smaller insurers are increasingly unable to invest in the infrastructure and technology to effectively manage care (Bakhtiari, 2010). However, mergers have been the main power rather than small insurers going out of business. 2. Hypothesize the basic short-run and long-run behaviors of the model in the industry you have chosen in a Ã¢â¬Å"market economyÃ¢â¬ This paper uses Kinked-Demand theory of oligopoly; there is no single theory that explains oligopoly behavior. The kinked demand model assumes that if one firm raises the prices, other firms will not follow to increase. If the firm reduces its price, it is assumed that its competitors will follow suit and reduce their prices as well. The result is a demand curve for the firm that is kinked at the current equilibrium price (Low, 2000). Taking this as assumption, a single health insurer that tries to raise price will lose market share mainly just because other insurers are not following, it will suffer a loss in demand because the competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ prices remain low. In contract, if a single firm that cuts prices, all of its competitors will follow to reduce the price. As a result, a firm will have a kinked demand curve. Firms may operate at a profit in the short-run if demand for the product is high relative to costs. The firm may force to go out of business if it canÃ¢â¬â¢t generate enough revenue to even cover the variable costs. Hence the model predicts that prices in the long run should be fairly rigid in an oligopoly. This could indicate that insurance premiums will remain fairly stable in the health insurance industry. The kinked demand theory suggests there will be price in these markets and the firms will rely more on non-price competition to boost sales, revenue and profits. The result in market share is no gain and relative small increases in quantity demanded (Low, 2000). 3. Analyze at least three (3) possible areas for the industry that could lead to transaction costs, and explain each in detail In the health insurance industry, transaction cost could arise from acquisition expenses, process outsourcing, and increased product complexity.Acquisition is the expense of soliciting and placing new insurance business on a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s books. It includes agentÃ¢â¬â¢s underwriting expenses, medical and credit, report fees, commissions, and marketing support services. The significant efforts are made by insurance companies to lower acquisition costs because of the competition. Outsourcing of processes may become a necessity when firms gather up more and more customers due to mergers, the current workforce will no longer be able to handle jobs. Sometime, hiring more employees could be very costly for some firms because of increasing market salaries; outsourcing could be the better option. Firms will have to pay additional expenses to outsourcing firms that process application and provide customer service. This lead to transaction cost. Transaction costs may also arise from increase product complexity due to firms grow, merge and consolidation. Products become more complex catering to more segments due to gathering more customer; firms increase product lines. Hence, customers will have to incur transaction costs in searching or inquiring for the best product, and in estimating the quality of the service. 4. Speculate about the behavior that could result from these transactions and propose at least two (2) strategies for dealing with them It affects consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior for reconsidering the health plan when transaction costs arise from product complexity. Any uncertainty arises from product uncertainty; it refers to the difficulties in determining the quality of purchased products (Thompson, 2004). Consumers are likely to inquire more information if purchased services will meet their expectations before they purchase. Consumers rely on the quality examination that insurance agents or references. This product uncertainty may increase transaction cost. This can be dealt with by reinforcing product quality through advertising about the products and services, meeting with potential customers, and providing training to employees to meet better expectation. When transaction costs arise from enforcement and monitoring, behavioral results are uncertainty. Behavioral uncertainty refers to the inherent difficulties faced by buyers in accurately evaluating the contractual performance of insurance companies (Thompson, 2004). This increases transaction cost as consumers spend more time thinking about buying insurance because the claims may against them or excessive policy. This can be dealt with by ensuring that potential customers understand the nature of the contract. 5. Collect costs, revenue data, or other data from the industry you deem relevant. Explain how you would modify the data in order to make it relevant to decisions a manager must make Base of the data from Austin Hungerford, health insurance markets in many local areas are highly concentrated and the exercise of market power in concentrated markets generally leads to higher prices and reduced output. In the data, medical loss ratios among major insurers range from a low of 70.7% to almost 89%. Some major commercial insurers have had significant decreases in medical expense ratios in the past decade. For example, CIGNA HealthCareÃ¢â¬â¢s medical loss ratio, 86.3% in 2001, fell to 70.7% in 2008 (Austin Hungerford, 2009). In general, medical loss ratios can change dramatically from one year to another. This explained by unexpectedly high medical costs or by aggressive pricing intended to increase market share. The above data help managers understand industry characteristics better than an individual. It is relevant to managers by consolidating all of the medical loss ratio, and combining them in an industry average. The managers have a better feel for industry averages and trends. 6. Explain the major factors that affect the degree of competitiveness in your industry. Use the data to develop at least three (3) measures (e.g., productivity measures) to show how the industry is evolving The first factor is the number of firms on the market. If there are large number of firms operate in industry, overall prices will be reduced. The second factor is government regulation which affects the degree of competitiveness of the health insurance industry. The third is government provides health insurance. This can change the entire game plan for health industry. Private firms may be unable to compete against governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s insurance plans. That will affect the overall competitiveness of the industry. These measures to show how the industry is evolving include average prices of health insurance plans, potential buyers, and overall average medical costs. Average price of health insurance will show the industrys evolution by examining patterns of profit growth in relation to health insurance costs. The number of health insurance buyers will help understand the growth patterns in customer base, and demand for health insurance plans. Medical costs will show the relationship between industry growths, inflation of costs, and increase in general medical care.
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Challenges ASEAN Will Face In Establishing A Community ASEAN nations have signed the Cebu Declaration on the Acceleration of the Establishment of an ASEAN community by 2015 on the 12th ASEAN Summit in Cebu. This ASEAN community comprises of 3 main pillars, the ASEAN economic community, ASEAN political security community and ASEAN socio-cultural community. It is aimed at being a concert of Southeast Asian nations, displaying the outward looking nations that are living in peace, stability and prosperity as a whole region which is bonded strongly together in a dynamic and wide development and in a community of caring societies. However, it seems that due to the many differences between the countries, there would be many challenges in fulfilling its 2015 vision of establishing an ASEAN community by 2015. Background of ASEAN ASEAN was established on 8th of August 1967 when the Bangkok declaration was signed by Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia , Singapore and Indonesia. Brunei Darussalam joined the ASEAN community on January 1984 and Myanmar joined in 1997. Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia became members in 1995, 1997 and 2004 respectively. ASEAN was established to strengthen self-reliance and regional cohesion, while emphasizing social, cultural and economic cooperation and developmentÃ £Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å¡Another reason why ASEAN was formed was because back then, countries like China were getting too powerful and the only way the smaller countries could prosper was to group together. Thus, ASEAN was established. Now the main purpose of ASEAN is to help its members increase its economic growth and social development, and to establish peace between the ASEAN countries. Map of ASEAN countries Overview of challenges In this project we will study the ASEAN community and their commitment towards their goals, the problems they might face, and find the possible impact of it. The security and religious issues continue to be a barrier for ASEAN, with the many ethno-religious movements that will likely affect the coherence and stability within a nation and possibly ASEAN as a whole. The issue of more transparent boundaries that will be established will also cause the security to be less tight and will affect the peace of all. The different rate of economic development between the ASEAN nations is a huge challenge for ASEAN members in establishing a stable ASEAN economic community as the economy is a very important area and it will affect everyone in the ASEAN community. The differences in political systems of ASEAN members also poses a challenge as it would be difficult for so many different countries to work together cohesively with the nations operating differently. Challenge 1:Religious and security issues One of ASEANs greatest challenges in creating an ASEAN community is the security issues caused by ethno-religious movements and the more transparent boundaries that might greatly disrupt the peaceful coexistence that the ASEAN nations have tried established with one another. The ASEAN community will create more transparent boundaries so that it is more accessible for the people but that will also lead into a security that is not that tight and making it more unsafe for the people. The ASEAN countries remain vulnerable to threats from ethno-religious movements of the people who are hungry for self-governance. Ethno-religious movements have been a huge block for ASEAN in establishing a fully fledged ASEAN Community as there would be issues arising regarding the coherence of the country or the entire region. Southeast Asia has housed Islamic militant groups for the past few decades. After the World War II, Southeast Asian countries mostly became independent as the colonial powers that once ruled then departed. The countries were governed by undemocratic and brutal governments and affected the Muslim identities and values. This stirred up a sense of antagonism and animosity towards their various central governments, causing a great impact on the stability and security of ASEAN as a whole. Take for example, the Abu Sayyaf and Moro Islamic Liberation Front, both guerrilla organisations in the Philippines, are using political violence in attempt to pursue an autonomous Islamic state in Mindanao in the midst of the mostly Christian country and is said to have links to Malaysian and Indonesian jihadist forces. They have kidnapped foreign tourists from Malaysia, bombed a Philippines Airlines plane, assassinated and kidnapped priests and businessmen. Abu Sayyaf is said to have received arms and munitions from Afghanistan. It aims to evict Christians. As stated in the 2003 Declaration of Asean Concord II, Asean shall urgently and effectively address the challenge of translating Asean cultural diversities and different economic levels into equitable development opportunity and prosperity, in an environment of solidarity, regional resilience and harmony. Also, as ASEAN builds up its ASEAN Community, it also makes boundaries between the countries more transparent and this will result in a simpler way for terrorists groups to gather more members with the same beliefs as there is a larger number of people and the influence coming from so many areas will cause one to be daring enough to stand up for what they think that it is unfair to them as there are others backing them. This also makes it easier for terrorists movements to move about within the region as there is a widespread of members throughout the whole ASEAN and resources will be easier to get and access resources within the region. Even though ASEAN recognises that the region is divided into many ethno-cultural groups, efforts can only be taken to try to preserve the diversity in cultural heritage and to promote regional identity and it will be very challenging for ASEAN to overcome such issues to achieve a harmonious community. Along with the issue of more transparent borders, ASEAN can try their best to understand and accommodate the different religions and the reasons being such movement, however, ASEAN must also remember that even though the boundaries are more transparent, security must always remain tight and must always be alert and looking out for terrorist threats that will be constantly heading towards every country. Challenge 2: Differences in each countries development rates Different rates of development between ASEAN countries makes it difficult for all of them to work together cohesively on the large scale. Many ASEAN countries have widely different economic states, making fulfilling the goal of establishing the ASEAN community by 2015 rather challenging. GDP per capita of ASEAN countries as of 2005 in USD One example of counties with vastly and Cambodia. Although Cambodia is more than 250 times the size of Singapore and has 30 times the population, Singapore has a much better economy. In Cambodia, as of 2004, the percentage of the population below poverty line is a whopping 31%, while comparatively, in Singapore, the amount of citizens below poverty line is almost 0%. The currency and GDP per capita of Singapore is also much higher than that of Cambodia, at 1.4 per USD and $50,300 compared to 4221 per USD and $1,900 respectively. Singapore also has a lot of well developed infrastructure while Cambodia has barely any infrastructure in the rural areas. With the huge differences in these statistics, it is easy to tell that the Singapore economy is doing much better than the Cambodia economy. Another pair of countries with different development rates is Cambodia and Thailand, these two countries are right next to each other and both are relatively unstable. Both countries have gone through many economic and political troubles, but the economic situation in Thailand has generally been better than that in Cambodia, and the GDP of Thailand has constantly remained above that of Cambodia. In the countryside, Cambodia does not really have even the more basic infrastructure and the majority of Cambodias population is in fact younger than 21 years old and many of these youths lack the skill and education required to help push forward Cambodias economy. While on the other hand, Thailand has relatively well developed infrastructure and the countries people generally better educated. The GDP per capita of Thailand and Cambodia as of 2009 was $8,100 and $1,900 respectively. Although Thailand has slightly over four times the population of Cambodia, it has around twenty times the GDP. The death rate and infant mortality rate is also higher in Cambodia, and the life expectancy in Thailand is 73 years while in Cambodia it is 62 years. All these information shows that Thailand is a more economically developed country than Cambodia. All these information shows that the countries in ASEAN all have vastly different economic development rates, this would pose a problem when attempting to fulfil the 2015 vision. Statistics on ASEAN countries Challenge 3: differences in each countries political system Differences in government systems between ASEAN countries make it rather difficult for the countries to cooperate, as actions taken by different countries to tackle a similar issue may vary and there might be conflicts between the countries. The type of government greatly affects the domestic stability of a country and many other aspects, such as the economy, security and welfare of the citizens. Differences in government system in ASEAN can be seen through the case study of Myanmar and Thailand. Myanmar has a military government, in which military officers took up the majority of the ministries and cabinet posts which control the country. Though major political parties, such as the National League for Democracy and the Shan Nationalities league for Democracy and parties representing other ethnic groups are present in the country, their activities are greatly suppressed and controlled by the military government. Little room is given for the political organisations while many parties and underground student organisations are prohibited by the military. Despite pressure from ASEAN nations to release all the political prisoners and the request for greater progress towards democracy and a harmonious country, human rights in Myanmar remained poor. ASEAN nations had failed to come to an agreement on Myanmars lack of political reform during the 12th ASEAN summit, as each country has their own opinions and concerns. While some countries do not wish to interfere with Myanmars internal issues, others regard democracy and human rights issues as a possible obstacle for ASEAN to be integrated in terms of politics, which is part of the 2015 vision. Furthermore, Myanmar ranks 178 positions out of 180 countries for the level of corruption in the country, according to the Corruption Perceptions Index. This also affects the militarys efficiency and their practice of good governance in the country. On the other hand, Thailand is under a constitutional monarchy government, led by a king, a Prime Minister and has a parliamentary democratic system with multiple political parties. In Thailand,their King is more of a symbol of national identity and unity rather than having direct power under Thailands constitution. Thailand was similar to Myanmar in the way that Thailand was under the rule of a succession of military leaders with relatively weak democratic system. In the recent years, Thailands political landscape has been constantly plagued with issues such as persisting and significant difference between the urban and rural political orientation and focus, and democratically elected leaders abusing their power and their conflict of interest. Currently, the ongoing political unrest in Thailand began due to a coup dÃ ©tat staged by the military in 2006 that overthrown Thaksin, the former Prime Minister, for corruption and abuse of power. Thaksin supporters, who are mostly working class constituency and people from poor rural areas, accuse Thailands urban elites for coordinating the coup. These poorer citizens liked his ideas of more affordable medical care and debt relief, which can greatly improve their living standard. This is one of the key reasons for the overwhelming support from the red-shirt protestors even when he was on self-imposed exile. Not only was Thailands national economy crippled by its political instability. Thaksins supporters had disrupted the 14th ASEAN summit that was held in Thailand last year, and brought embarrassment to the ASEAN community. All of these issues makes it difficult for the ASEAN countries to work together, and much things need to be done to dampen these problems. Conclusion ASEAN countries face quite a number of challenges towards achieving their goal of setting up an ASEAN community as there are always some problems in cooperation faced by the member countries. Security issues, political and government issues make it hard for countries to cooperate together to form the community. These problems faced will not allow the member countries to make decisions and agree with one another easily. To fulfil its dream of the 2015 ASEAN community, ASEAN has to put in much effort into rectifying these problems, even though much has already been done towards establishing the ASEAN community.